by C.K. MacLeod
Updated June 30, 2021.
I have all-in-one laptop that weighs the same as a tablet. It’s a marvel of a machine except for one thing: because it doesn’t have a numeric keypad (less keyboard = better portability), I cannot create em dashes (—) and en dashes (–) in my usual way.
(You know there are three kinds of dashes in written English, right? Use them correctly in your writing and you will impress a copyeditor!)
1. Use built-in keyboard shortcuts.
On a regular-size keyboard with a number keypad, I can use keyboard shortcuts to create em dashes and en dashes:
- Em dash (—): Alt+0151
- En dash (–): Alt+0150
In Microsoft Word:
- Em dash (—): Alt+Ctrl+ – (minus)
- En dash (–): Ctrl + – (minus)
Mac users use these shortcuts:*
- Em dash (—): Shift-Alt-hyphen or Command + M
- En dash (–): Alt-hyphen
My usual keyboard shortcuts don’t work on my portable laptop, though. Here are few workarounds:
2. Plug in a full-size external keyboard or keypad.
This option will only be appealing to you if you tend to use your laptop like a desktop.
For editing documents, I like to plug my laptop into a massive monitor and attach a wireless mouse and full-size keyboard, complete with a number keypad.
Alternatively, you can plug in a portable USB number keypad and use your laptop keyboard and touchpad. With this set-up, there are no problems creating em and en dashes in my usual way—using Alt codes.
But what if you prefer to use your laptop on-the-go, as it’s intended? Read on…
3. Use Unicode character codes.
Most compact PC laptop keyboards won’t allow you to use Alt codes to create em dashes and en dashes, but you can use Unicode character codes in most instances:
- Em dash: 2014+Alt+x
- En dash: 2013+Alt+x
You can look up other Unicode character codes here.
Note: Keyboard shortcuts using Unicode character codes don’t work in Scrivener, Gmail, or Google docs. For these programs, try one of the options that follow.
4. Use your word processor’s built-in autocorrect function.
In Google Docs, if you type two hyphens followed by a space, those two hyphens will be changed to an em dash. Out of the box, Word and Scrivener will do the same.
There isn’t an autocorrect option out of the box for an en dash, though. So, you can try this:
In Word (Office 365) and up, go to File, Options, Proofing, and click on the AutoCorrect Options button.
Select the AutoCorrect tab and add these keyboard shortcuts in the Replace and With fields:
- Replace: .em With: —
- Replace .en With: –
Now each time you type .em (dot em) in Microsoft Word, it will be replaced by an em dash, and .en will give you an en dash.
If you want to do the same in Scrivener, go to Tool, Options, Corrections, Edit Substitutions. In Google Docs, go to Tools, Preferences.
5. Use your operating system’s character map.
Using you operating system’s search function, type in “character map.” A grid with symbols will pop up, and you can select the em dash or en dash and copy and paste it into your document. In Scrivener, you can access your operating system’s character map by going to Edit, Character Map. In Word 2010 and up, you’ll need to go to Insert, Symbol. In Google Docs, go to Insert, Special Characters.
6. Purchase an Add-on (Word only).
Editorium’s Editor’s Toolkit Plus has a feature called File Cleaner that turns hyphens between numbers into en dashes and two hyphens into em-dashes, even removing spaces around em dashes, if that’s your preferred style. Run this tool during the proofreading stage of a document. Note: This tool does much more than replace en and em dashes, making it well worth the investment.
There are many ways to create em dashes and en dashes on your laptop. If your only option is to use the character map (the least efficient option), consider inserting two hyphens for em dashes in your document for now. You can then use your word processor’s find and replace function to replace the hyphens with the correct symbol later.
Do you use a Mac? Let us know how you insert em dashes and en dashes into your writing in the comments section below.
*Thanks to John Espirian and Geri J. for suggesting keyboard shortcuts for Mac users.
Image by Dennis Skley